Report of Moses H. Perley on the Maliseet/Wulustukieg population of the St.John River valley, August 1841

In June 1841 Moses Henry Perley was asked by the provincial government of New Brunswick to survey the Maliseet and Micmac populations of New Brunswick, with the goal of ascertaining whether and how the province should deal with the land reserves that had been set aside for the First Nations of the province, as well as whether the province should build schools for those populations.  He undertook this report in August of 1841. In his report on the Maliseet or Wulustukieg Nation, he visited settlements near Fredericton, at Meductic point, at Tobique, and at Madawaska. He notes that he found about 440 members of the Maliseet Nation in these settlements along the St. John River.

Below I have reproduced that part of his report related to the First Nations population of the St.John River valley (I have not included the sections of his report on the Mi'kmaq populations in the other parts of the province). I have transcribed the text of the Report as published; names of white settlers were in the report replaced with underlines, which are reproduced here.

As can be seen in the report, a major concern of the government seemed to be to ensure that the native population was assimilating into the dominant culture and being "productive"; in one such example, Perley suggests that by ending the return of salmon up the Tobique (by damming the river), the natives might become more "settled" and thus more productive.  He also suggests forcing some of the population to abandon its settlements.  While framed in paternalistically protective terms, Perley's report is part of the provincial government's process of dispossessing of the First Nations of their land and their culture under the guise of protecting them.

In 1854 land that had in 1801 been set aside by the province as part of the Tobique Indian Reserve was granted to whites who had been squatting on the land for many years.  Perley in his 1841 report mentions some squatters, though their names are not give. In 1854 however, their names were made public:

"The squatters identified in 1854 included Samuel Lovely, James Murphy, Abraham Topham, John Hanson, Benjamin Beveridge, Stillman Armstrong, John Larlee, Sr., Elijah Larlee, Thomas Lovely, Joseph Lovely, John Larlee, jr., Daniel Craig, James Taylor, Sutton Armstrong, Anthony Nichols, Joseph Topham, Amos Larlee, David Lewis Dibblee, Frederick Giberson, Barnabas Armstrong. Not all of the squatters were actually settled upon the land. David Lewis Dibblee and Benjamin Beveridge lived elsewhere but had a financial interest in the lots." Source: A Brief Historical Sketch of Perth-Andover, by Daniel F. Johnson

In the 1851 census almost all of these men are found in Perth, on pages 9, 10 and 11. That census did not enumerate the Maliseet living in the Tobique Reserve.

For information about Moses Perley, see below.

For background on the First Nations of the valley, go to my page on Native Peoples in the Upper St.John River valley

If you have any other information on Perley or on this report, please let me know! Thanks.

Reports on Indian Settlements, &c.

Published by Command

Extracts from Mr. Perley's First Report Respecting the Indians on the Saint John
Dated 12th August, 1841

Mr. Perley having been appointed to visit the Indian Settlements, arrived at their Village [not far from Fredericton--cg] on the 5th of July, where he found a large number of the Melicete Tribe assembled in expectation of his visit, and a Council being formed, he delivered to them a Speech, explaining to them his object in coming among them, to which they returned the following answer: —

After considerable discussion, the Council agreed upon their answer, which was delivered by Noel Nicholas, a Senior of the Tribe. He said, that they thanked their Mother the Queen for her good wishes toward them, and also their Father the Governor for the interest he took in their behalf. That they rejoiced very much to hear that lands were secured to them, and they promised to live on them, and cultivate them, if they were allowed to acquire some individual rights in the land, as well as to have a general interest in the residue.

That their children should attend the Schools, as they wished them to learn to read and write. That if more lands were acquired at the Village, many families that were now wandering about, would settle there and lead regular lives.

That their head Chief at Caughnawagh had sent them his words by a Wampom Belt, and told them never to part with one inch of their land, and by that they wished to abide.

That it was their wish that any lands set apart for them, might be secured to them by Deed or Grant, and that some person should be appointed Agent to look after such lands, and manage their affairs.

There is at the Village a Chapel in a very delapidated condition. It is 54 feet long and 34 feet wide. The Indians are preparing to erect a new one, also 54 feet but 46 feet wide. The frame Timber for the new Chapel is all on the spot, (except the Sills) and they have fourteen thousand feet of boards, but no shingles or siding. The Treasurers of the Tribe have in hand £15 15s. collected by subscription, and they have been informed that it will take three hundred pounds, besides what money and materials they now have, to finish the intended Chapel. They begged me to solicit aid in their behalf toward the new building.

They stated that the Priest visited them occasionally, but since there has been two Priests in Fredericton, they have been visited much oftener than before. They have not, nor ever had, a School among them, and none of the children can either read or write.

The Village Lot contains about 320 acres, which has been purchased for them, and they have several very respectable dwellings built upon it. The house of Louis Bear is 26 feet by 36 feet, two stories in height with a stone basement. The house of Vassall LaConte is 15 by 18 feet, a story and a half in height. There are seven other framed houses occupied, and one now building, with eleven large standing wigwams. The land is good for tillage, and most of the residents cultivate Indian Corn and Potatoes, for which purpose each family has a certain portion of ground set apart. There is considerable meadow, the grass on which they sell standing, and divide the proceeds among them. They own two horses, four hogs, and about 150 fowls. The constant cropping of the land without compost, must in a few years render it almost valueless for Agricultural purposes, and unless a different system is adopted, their attempts at cultivation will, after a time, cease entirely.

I found the most intelligent of the Indians at the Village exceedingly desirous that their children should have the benefit of Education, as they said they felt the want of it daily and hourly themselves, in transactions with their white neighbours. Some of the Seniors stated that if a School were established, they would go to it themselves, as they longed to know how to read and write.

It appeared to be the general wish that the Village Lot should be increased by the purchase of one or more of the adjoining farms. I ascertained that the farms by which the Village Lot is bounded are for sale, and that they have on them respectable dwellings, and substantial barns and out-buildings. The farm to the northward belongs to Mr. Close, and that to the southward to Mr. Murray; the asking price of each is one thousand pounds Currency.

From the Village I proceeded up the River Saint John, accompanied by two Canoemen and an Interpreter, and next visited a small Settlement at Meductic Point, about eight miles below Woodstock. I found here only twenty nine souls. [note: There is some doubt whether the Land at Meductic Point has not been Granted.]

The Point occupied by the Indians is very beautifully situated; the land is alluvial, of the finest and richest description, but shamefully neglected, and almost a public common. It was stated to me that they had at first 113 rods in front on the River, and that their land run back three miles continuing the same breadth. That they had a writing stating the boundaries, signed by Governor Carleton, which, some years ago was left at the Crown Lands' Office, and they have not seen it since. That latterly one Peter Watson has taken possession of a considerable portion of their land by virtue of a Grant or Licence, as he alleges, and they have now scarcely a half of the Lot assigned them by Governor Carleton, the boundaries of which were set up and marked, during his administration, by Mr. Bedell, a Crown Surveyor.

This Meductic Point is not mentioned among the lands reserved for the Indians in the return made by the Surveyor General to His Excellency, but I beg to state that both by history and tradition, it would seem to be one of the most ancient Indian Settlements on the Saint John. While there, the remains of an old Indian Fort were pointed out to me, within which the bones of several hundred men repose, apparently in one common grave. It is said that the Indians built here a very strong Fort of earth and timber, to repel the French; that several desperate battles were fought on this spot, as also on the opposite side of the River, where many skeletons have likewise been found, and that these are the bones of the slain. The grave at this Fort has several times been opened by the curious, and numerous ancient Indian Spears and implements of Stone, have been carried off.

There is now in possession of His Honor the Chief Justice, the certified copy of a Grant of this very place from the Crown of France to René D'Amour, Sieur du Clignancourt, bearing date the 20th September, 1684. A Seigneurie to be called "Clignancourt," is described in this Grant, commencing at "Medvctet" and extending down to the Meductic Falls, with a depth of two leagues on each side of the River.

The Baron de la Hontan, in his letters from Canada, (written in 1690,) mentions the Sieurs d'Amour of Quebec, as having a great Trading Establishment on the Saint John at that time and it is to be presumed that the battles with the Indians occurred prior to such establishment, as the slain are found with stone weapons only, those of metal not being discovered, and it is well known that such were introduced and became common immediately after the French Traders obtained a footing among the Indians.

These circumstances are mentioned to show the long continued possession of the Indians at this place—a possession—maintained by the blood of their Fathers, and of which it is to be hoped the Tribe will never be deprived.

From this place, I next proceeded to the River Tobique, where the Indians have a great reserve of 16,000 acres, extending eight miles in front on the River Saint John, and running back the same breadth four miles.

On the right bank of the Tobique, at its confluence with the Saint John, stands an Indian Village, consisting of thirty families, comprising 123 souls.

There are here, eleven framed houses, and twelve large standing wigwams. They have some land under crop (chiefly potatoes,) but much cleared land which appears to have been formerly cultivated, has been neglected; bushes have grown up upon it, and it is fast relapsing into a state of wilderness.

Fronting on the Saint John, and the left bank of the Tobique, there is a very fine piece of alluvial land, called the Tobique Flat, on which a considerable quantity of hay is cut annually. The grass this year has been sold for thirty Pounds, to a person in the neighbourhood, who agreed to pay in Cash, but subsequently told the Indians that money was not to be had, and they must take provisions. This, it appeared, was a customary mode of dealing with the Indians; first to bargain with them for Cash, at a very inadequate price, and then taking advantage of their necessities, to palm off inferior articles of provision, at an exorbitant rate, in payment. I endeavoured to prevent it in this instance, by sending a written notice to the purchaser, that he must pay in Cash, according to his agreement, and also giving the Captain at Tobique, an order in writing, not to deliver any portion of the grass or hay, until he received payment in money for which he would hereafter account.

They have no Chapel here, but are exceedingly anxious to get one up, for which purpose they have collected nearly sufficient scantling, with about two thousand feet of boards, and 23 thousand shingles. The Treasurer has Ten Pounds in hand, collected by subscription for the Chapel. The Rev. Antoine Gosselin [pastor of St-Basile church in Madawaska--cg] comes to this place twice in each year, for a short time, from Madawaska. He informed me subsequently that he would visit the Tobique much oftener, and remain longer, if there were a place built for Public Worship.

There has never been a School here, or the slightest attempt made to educate the rising generation; they are growing up, much as they might be supposed to do, if there were no civilized people in this Province.

In passing up the River, I found the front of the Indian Reserve, for about three miles above the Tobique Rock, cleared and cultivated by squatters, who have build houses and barns, and appear to make themselves quite at ease. They pay no rent, acknowledge no title, and from long impunity, have become very insolent and overbearing. Besides occupying the land, they openly plunder the forest in the vicinity, of the most valuable Timber, and dispose of it, in the face of the Indians, whom they will scarcely allow to set foot upon the land, and invariably hunt oft like wild beasts, if they attempt to look after or prevent the trespasses which are constantly committed.

As soon as the purpose for which I came was known, they drew themselves up in hostile array, and would not communicate. One of the Squatters, in answer to an enquiry, told me, that he had lived on the land twenty years; that he had been several times sued, sometimes taken to Fredericton and sometimes to Woodstock, but beyond that, nothing had ever come of the suits; and, he supposed, could not. That he would never take a lease of the land, or pay rent, and if driven off, he would burn the buildings and devastate the land.

He told me that he came on the land in May, 1810; this year he has put up a house, and got in a crop. He has taken possession of a clay-bank, for the purpose of commencing the manufacture of brick, and also of a Mill Privilege, intending to set up a Mill forthwith. I gave him a notice to desist and quit the Property, when he admitted that he came there without any authority, merely because he saw many others do so with impunity, and he thought he also might as well have some benefit from the Indian Land.

While ranging the front of the Reserve, I discovered a quantity of Scantling, (in all twenty one pieces,) cut and hauled to the bank of the Saint John, ready to be taken away. This I seized, and directed the Indians to remove to the Village for security. I then went on to seize some Birth Timber, and while absent, the Indians proceeded to get away the Scantling. The trespasser who had cut it, came with a party of men and attempted a rescue. I returned immediately with the party of Indians who accompanied me, when the other party withdrew, and the Scantling was brought off and deposited at the Village.

Mr. _____ admitted to me that he had cut the Scantling without leave; that a Crown Officer had seized it, but told him that he might take it away on settling with hte Indians, which he had not done. Much angry feeling was displayed by Mr. _____ and his party on this occasion, and in mere wantonness, they destroyed the canoe of a poor Indian who landed at a Store on the opposite side of the River to purchase goods.

It was stated to me broadly by Mr. _____ that it had so long been the custom for every person to cut as they pleased on Indian Land, that they considered it right and lawful to do so, and if any objection were made (that is, if detected in the act or before the removal of the Timber,) the payment of Stumpage made all right.

I learned at the Tobique that a number of person had cut Timber on the Reserve during the past winter, and that Mr. _____ had been sent up to seize it, with instructions to give it up to the several parties on their satisfying the Indians. Under this arrangement the Indians received the trifling sum of eight pounds four shillings and six pence, chiefly paid in provisions at enormous prices. ______ _______ cut a quantity of Birch Timber, which was seized; he then promised to pay the Indians at the rate of half-a-dollar for each tree, but succeeded in getting it away before payment, and now refuses to pay, as do others under like circumstances.

I found seven pieces of large Birch Timber just hauled out, which I seized, and I desired him to let it remain there until further orders; he promised that it should not be removed. On my return from Madawaska, I found that it had been carried off.

From all these circumstances, His Excellency will at once perceive the impropriety of allowing Timber willfully cut on the Indian Reserve, to be given up, upon any terms. The only mode of stopping these constant trespasses is to confiscate the Timber in all cases, and when it is found that this course is adopted and rigidly adhered to, the wholesale plunder now going on, will be brought to an end, and the morals of the neighbourhood greatly improved.

The Timber seized from _____ was placed by the Indians with the scantling intended for their Chapel, and they beg to be allowed to use it in that building.

The Indians having stated to me that the Mill erected on the Tobique, at the mouth of the Little Pokiok, was within the rear line of their land, I went up up to the line, and found the Mill half-a-mile within it, on the Reserve. On my return to Fredericton, I made a careful examination of the Plans in the Crown Lands' Office, and found that half the grant (including a valuable Mill Privilege) is actually part of the Indian Land.

Within the last few years, a grant has passed of 550 acres of land to the Parish Church for a Glebe. By the grant-plan, the land appears to be bounded on the one side by the lower line of the Reserve, and on the other by a lot granted to Henry Merritt. On examination of the land, I found that the lower line of the Reserve, and the line of Merritt's lot, were one and the same line, and consequently no vacancy between. On enquiry at the Crown Lands' Office, I found that the mistake had arisen from a Plan in that Office, exhibiting a vacancy, and that such Plan was a Compilation made by the late Surveyor General Sproule.

A grant having passed the Great Seal, for Land which does not exist, the parties interested have seized upon the lower end of the Resesrve, and claim to occupy it under their grant. As this may lead to serious difficulty, the matter should be enquired into and adjusted speedily, as an act of justice to all parties. [ 1 ]

I was requested to ascertain the feelings of the Indians, with respect to a lease of the Mill Privilege at the foot of the Tobique Narrows. These Narrows commence about half-a-mile from the mouth of the Tobique; they are about three fourths of a mile in length, the River for that distance being hemmed in between lofty and nearly perpendicular cliffs of very good roofing Slate. In times of flood, these Narrows present a serious obstruction to the navigation of the River, a great volume of water being forced with much violence through a crooked and confined passage.

Mr. _____ proposes to erect a Dam at the foot of the Narrows, which will flow back the water for some distance, thus checking the violence of the Stream, and rendering it navigable with ease and safety at all times. He also offers to construct a Lock for the passage of boats, and keep open a fish-way, to allow the thousands of Salmon which annually frequent this, their favorite River, to pass up to the usual spawning ground.

I brought this matter before the Indians at Tobique, in full Council, and found their sole objection to the establishment of Saw Mills, at the Narrows, was this—that the Salmon Fishery, on which they now mainly depend for support during the summer season, would thereby, sooner or later, be altogether destroyed. The Indian method of taking the Salmon, is altogether by the Spear and torch, and it struck me that they prized much more highly the dash and excitement of the sport in taking the fish, than the profit arising from the sale of them. During my stay at the Tobique, the day was spent by the Indians in almost listless idleness; but so soon as night fell, the torch was lit, the Spear lifted, the canoe launched, and all became life, bustle and activity. The sport was pursued the whole night, and day-light exhibited heaps of glittering Salmon on the bank, and the Indians languidly creeping off, to sleep away another day of total idleness.

The destruction of the Salmon Fishery would perhaps induce the Indians to adopt more settled habits of industry, and pay more attention to the cultivation of the soil than they do at present. The greatest objection to the erection of Saw Mills in their vicinity appears to me to be the demoralization of both sexes from their intercourse with the loose characters too often found about such establishments, particularly in a remote district.

If a lease of the Mill Privilege at the Narrows is granted to Mr. _____, I beg to suggest the following terms: —

The payment of a fair and reasonable rent, and (on public grounds) and obligation to improve and facilitate the navigation of the River, and to maintain a sufficient Fishway. A small portion of land only, should be leased with the Mill Privilege, and no right or title whatever given to the Quarries of roofing Slate, which I conceive to be valuable, and should therefore be expressly excepted. The use of nets below the Dam, a very common and destructive practice, should be strictly prohibited, under penalties.

From the Tobique I proceeded to Madawaska, and visited the Indian Settlement at the mouth of the Madawaska River, where I found only twenty seven souls

These Indians occupy an exceedingly beautiful and very fertile piece of ground, and their crop appeared in a promising state. They cultivate the land upon shares with one of their French neighbours; each party finds half the seed; the Frenchman sows, reaps and delivers them half the crop, as also half the grass from their meadow, which he also cuts and makes into hay. They sowed this year ninety bushels of Wheat and Oats, and thirty bushels of Potatoes, besides Peas, Beans and Flax. They have also fifty bushels of Potatoes planted by individuals on their sole account, and their farm has a very respectable appearance.

The Captain of the Madawaska Settlement is named Louis Bernard, a very respectable industrious man, to whose sole exertions the prosperous state of the farm is to be attributed; He told me that he was upwards of fifty years of age; that he was born on the land, and that his father and grandfather were also born, lived, died and were buried on this spot. That when he was a boy, the Indians had a very considerable Village here, the wigwams standing in regular streets near the waterside; he pointed out to me the former site of their Village, and also the boundaries that were assigned to the Tribe when he was a youth. Their land commenced on the bank of the Saint John, at a small Brook half-a-mile above the mouth of the Madawaska River, and extended down the Saint John, one mile and a half to a point of rocks jutting into the Stream, which point is now the boundary between the Indian land and the property of Alexander Albert.

Within this tract a grant was made some years ago to _____ on the East side of the Madawaska, of 200 acres. _____ purchased from an Indian who then resided on the land, a piece containing nine acres, which was marked out by stakes. Under color of this purchase, he succeeded in obtaining from the Crown a grant of 200 acres. Recently the Government had occasion to take possession of a portion of this grant, 400 yards square, on which to place a Block House, and other Public Works, when _____ demanded fifteen hundred pounds damages, but was eventually induced, or rather compelled, to take three hundred pounds, in satisfaction of his claim.

That part of the Indian Reserve on the West side of the Madawaska, is now in the possession of _____, under a Licence of occupation at a nominal rent. _____ makes no use of this land, and appears to hold it with the hope of eventually obtaining title to it, and for that purpose only. Some years before _____ obtained a Licence to occupy this land, Pierre Denis, an Indian, had cleared and cultivated a portion of the front, on which he had built a small house, and was living very comfortably. Denis refused to give up possession, and finally an order was passed that _____ should pay to Denis a certain sum for his house, which was appraised at fifty dollars, and on the promise of that sum being paid, Denis quitted the land in 1837, and yielded up possession to _____.

I saw Pierre Denis at Tobique; he is an old man, childless and in poor circumstances.

On behalf of the Indians, I claim the land now held by _____ under the license of occupation, and pray that he may be compelled to pay Pierre Denis the sum doe[?] by appraisement for his improvements, or else allow him to re-occupy them.

The total number of Milicete Indians now in this Province is four hundred and forty two, and in conclusion, I have to submit a few remarks on the Settlements recently visited.

The Indians at the Village near Fredericton have of late years become rather industrious; the women work early and late at the manufacture of baskets, while the men provide the materials, and also till the soil with their own hands. They do not follow the chase as ardently, or for so great a part of the season, as they used to do, and they lead much more settled lives than formerly. Hence it may be inferred that this would be the most eligible place, for the establishment of a School, and for making the attempt to civilize them. The Village is in a respectable neighbourhood, near the Seat of Government, and could always be kept under effectual supervision, and the immediate eye of the Executive.

Of the small Settlement at the Meductic, I regret that I have to state, that (with one or two exceptions) the men are drunkards, and the women debauched, while the children are naked and starving. I respectfully recommend that the valuable land they occupy, should be leased for the benefit of the Tribe, and the Settlement broken up.

The Indians at Tobique, subsist in a great measure by the chase, by occasional employment in lumbering, and in piloting rafts down the Tobique and the Saint John. They seem by no means inclined to continue labour, or the cultivation of the soil—yet, from the advantages of their situation, and the value of the Salmon Fishery, they have rather comfortable dwellings, and appear in easy circumstances as compared with others of the Tribe.

They appeared very anxious to have a Chapel, but by no means so anxious for a School; it will be matter for consideration hereafter, whether it would not be advisable to induce the Indians to leave this place, and settle at the Village, near Fredericton. The ground they occupy is much wanted as the site of a Town, and would lease for a very considerable sum.

With respect to the Madawaska Settlement, I have to state that Louis Bernard and his family are respectable, and well conducted; the other men there, devote themselves almost entirely to the chase, and, whenever they obtain money, spend it in drink. I think it would be advisable to let Bernard occupy a portion of this land during his life, and lease the rest for the benefit of the Tribe.

I conceive I have stated enough to show the manner in which the Indian Reserves are trespassed upon, and are gradually frittering away from the absence of superintendence, and the want of authority of one person or persons to watch over and protect the rights of the unlettered people who, from their situation and utter ignorance of business, are peculiarly open to the schemes of designing persons. I refrain from offering any observations as to the general management of the Indian Lands, until I shall have visited the Micmac Settlements, as whatever measures are adopted, should apply equally to all.

From the best information I could obtain, I came to the conclusion, that if the Indina Lands on the Saint John were judiciously leased, and their numerous resources developed and rendered available, a Revenue might be derived from them, sufficient not only to educate all the children of the Tribe, but also to feed and clothe them during the period of such education.

General Return of Indians of the Milicete Tribe on the River Saint John, 12th August 1841

At Saint John
At the Village
At Meductic
At Tobique Point
At Madawaska

[Note: column totals given as in original, including mistakes]

Perley's report then continues with his visits to the various Mi'kmaq settlements in other parts of New Brunswick.

About Moses Perley:

Perley was born in 1804 to a family that had settled in Maugerville, New Brunswick, downriver from Fredericton:

Brothers Israel and Oliver Perley and others travelled from Massachusetts by boat to Machias, Maine, and then struck off through the woods with their knapsacks on their backs to the Saint John River Valley. They settled on a large tract of a land which was later called Maugerville. Before Moses Henry Perley was born in 1804, his father was killed in an accident. Although his mother moved to Saint John, yet as a young lad Moses spent considerable time with members of the Perley clan in Maugerville. His older brother died in early childhood. These misfortunes brought him very close to his mother who married Caleb Merrit, whose death occurred when Moses was only seventeen.

Moses Perley became a lawyer and at the age of twenty-five he married Jane Ketchum. Death took its toll on their family with the loss of five of their nine children.

From his mid teens onward, Moses made frequent trips up the river to trade with the Indians and established close ties with the Malecites.

Between 1843 and 1858, he was the provincial emigrant agent, the man most concerned with shaping and carrying out New Brunswick’s immigration policies. Tirelessly he promoted New Brunswick as the potential Eden he envisioned. Later he became fisheries commissioner. On August 17, 1862, his death occurred on board the vessel, ‘Desperate” and he was buried at Forteau, Labrador.

Moses Perley was New Brunswick’s recognized expert on the province’s rivers, natural resources and fisheries and the foremost authority during the mid-nineteenth century on Indian affairs as well as its most able emigrant agent in London, England. Fortunately, he found time to share through writing much of his immense knowledge of the many subjects on which he was the uncontested expert. (Source: "Maritime men" by Allison Mitcham, on Ruby Cusack's website at

His experiences and "close ties" with the Maliseet population undoubtedly explained why he was chosen to undertake this report. For a very detailed biography of Perley, see his entry in the Canadian Dictionary of Biography online


1. This conflict was eventually settled by recognizing the grant, that is, subtracting from the "Indian Reserve" the land that had been granted, in what is now the settlement of Rowena.  This land is clear from a map of the Tobique Indian Reserve, where the land around Rowena has been carved from the Reserve.

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